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Sampling design and recruitment

Sampling design and recruitment

Each round associated with the IBBSS utilized respondent driven sampling provided to your concealed nature of MSM and therefore enables contrast between and across rounds. Respondent sampling that is drivenRDS) happens to be described at length in past studies 22, 23. Shortly, RDS is a modified chain referral sampling that is non-random of recruitment that adjusts for the non-randomness utilizing a mathematical model that loads each sample recruited 23. Inclusion criteria ended up being male aged 16 years and above with a history of oral and/or anal contact that is sexual another guy within the six months ahead of the study. Known MSM, designated as “seeds” began the chain associated with recommendation community and make use of vouchers to recruit their peers to the research. Ten seeds had been chosen for every circular and seeds had been diversified by age, educational status and status that is socioeconomic. In order to prevent an over-representation of MSM with comparable characteristics, vouchers restricted to three per recruit was utilized 23, 24. In addition, in order to prevent perform enrollment, only 1 screener ended up being utilized, just one individual had been authorized to reimburse MSM that has effectively recruited his peers and just one location ended up being utilized. Each voucher had been yielded and redeemable N500 approx. $3 USD as a motivation for participating, with an extra N500 directed at a recruit for every single effective participant that is additional. Total payment ended up being limited by a compensation that is maximum of approximately $12 USD. Test size when it comes to 2007 IBBSS had been projected centered on an assumed HIV prevalence of 15%, a design aftereffect of 2.0 and degree of accuracy of 0.05. For the 2010 and 2014 IBBSS, sample size ended up being calculated to identify a 10% differ from the subsequent round.

Data collection

Structured close-ended interviewer administered questionnaires elicited information about socio-demographic traits, form of intercourse partners and intimate danger habits. Interviews had been carried out in MSM friendly companies identified in each one of the research states. Transactional sex ended up being examined both with feminine and partners that are male. Kind of rectal intercourse practiced had been classified as “insertive penile intercourse” or “receptive penile intercourse” in past times 6 months. HIV danger perception had been examined by asking MSM you are at risk of infection with HIV? ” with response options being “yes or no”“do you feel. Consistent condom use with intimate lovers during transactional and sex that is non-transactional evaluated by asking the concerns “how frequently did you or your male partner work with a condom each time you had intercourse within the last 6 months? ” while condom usage at final sex had been examined because of the concern “the last time you had anal intercourse did you or your partner make use of condom? ”. Transactional sex had been evaluated by asking “have you received cash or gift in return for intercourse within the last a few months? ” Penned permission had been obtained from all individuals for both behavioural and biological aspects of the study.

Laboratory testing

Detection of HIV during all of the studies ended up being consistently carried out by quick test utilizing blood that is whole obtained from the hand prick. On the basis of the national HIV evaluating guideline, a synchronous algorithm of Determine (Alere health, USA) and Unigold (Trinity Biotech, Plc, Bray, Ireland) had been utilized to spot HIV sero-positivity while status of discordant tests ended up being verified if you use Stat Pak (Chembio Diagnostic techniques, ny, United States Of America).

Information administration and analysis

Data from each research state had been entered CS that is centrally using Pro 3.2 and 25% of questionnaires underwent double-data entry to make sure information quality. Behavioural and biological information had been linked by research identification that is unique for every single participant. Information from each round had been merged and analyzed utilizing STATA 14.0 (STATA Corporation). Descriptive statistics of demographic, behavioural, and variables that are biological carried out. The Cochran-Armitage Chi Square trend test ended up being used to compare differences when considering categorical factors across various rounds of IBBSS, whilst the Kruskal-Wallis test had been utilized to compare variations in constant factors across various rounds of IBBSS. To determine associations between HIV and predictor factors (Tables), bivariate logistic regression analysis had been carried out with p value ?0•2 designated as the cutoff for addition in multivariate logistic regression models. Factors were retained when they attained a p value ?0•05 in the multivariate analysis. The predictor factors had been centered on information from literary works that revealed a connection between your factors and HIV.


Table 1 highlights the sociodemographic information of MSM over the three rounds associated with the IBBSS. A complete of 897, 1545 and 3611 MSM were surveyed in 2007, 2010 and 2014 correspondingly. Most participants had been aged 20–24 years in 2007 (61%) and 2014 (46%), whilst in 2010, almost half (47%) for the participants were 25 years or older. Over 85% associated with participants had never ever hitched in each round associated with study. Almost all the participants had completed at the least additional degree training, and also this had been greatest among participants in 2007 with 63% accompanied by participants in 2014 (55%).

Intimate danger Behaviours

The median wide range of insertive anal lovers ended up being constant between 2007 and 2010 with about 50% associated with the participants insertive that is reporting sex (IAS) with at the least two lovers interquartile range (IQR 1–4) within the last few six months. For receptive anal sex (RAS), a median of two intimate lovers had been reported in 2007 whilst it had been one partner both in 2010 and 2014. Overall, about a 3rd had engaged in transactional intercourse in 2007 (95% self- self- confidence period (CI): 30–36%) and 2014 (32–35%), whilst it had been about two-fifths this season (36–41%). Consistent condom use, whenever intercourse ended up being offered increased steadily from 35% (27–44%) to 79per cent (74–83%) between 2007 and 2014. Likewise, constant condom use within the last six months ahead of the study during compensated intimate encounters increased from 35% (30–41%) in 2007 to 61per cent (58–64%) in 2014. For non-commercial lovers, constant condom usage increased from 32per cent (29–36%) in 2007 to 51percent (49–53%) in 2014. For self-reported experiences of sexually infection that is transmitted, there clearly was a growth from 7% (5–9%) in 2007 to 15per cent (13–17%) this season and 19per cent (17–20%) in 2014.

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